Stefanie Cohen of Hybrid Performance Method

My first memory of Stefi is her asking me after a CrossFit class what she needed to do to get a muscle-up – and being obviously and almost uncomfortably intense about her desire to get on top of a set of rings.

It seems that this extreme internal drive for success has served her well, as she is now setting world records in powerlifting.

Stefi used to coach weightlifting at SLSC during some of the dark times when there were basically no members and there was a giant bulldozer in the gym. We had fun, though.

Stefi is currently pursuing a doctorate in physical therapy at the University of Miami, and is back in Chicago doing some clinical rotations. So, her understanding of training isn’t colored simply by powerlifting – she has backgrounds in a wide variety of sports (including soccer at the national team level in Venezuela) and rehab.

In this conversation, we discuss screaming at walls as a childhood Scientologist, autoregulation in training, and holding onto perceived slights to motivate yourself in training.

Oh yeah, and here’s that video of Stefi’s 525 pound deadlift.

Listen Here

Check out Stefi and Hybrid Performance Method here:

Resources Mentioned

Show Notes

  • [1:45] On dealing with negative internet comments and having a thick skin: “I’m a fucking dinosaur”
  • [5:52] Approaching athletic endeavors with an intense mindset while simultaneously understanding the process of long-term progression – including working on getting a muscle-up when starting CrossFit and being benched for years on the Venezuelan national soccer team
  • [9:30] Balancing long-term progression with the desire for immediate results in training. The use of autoregulation in programming to allow flexibility in the design of training. Getting injured and being force to re-evaluate training methods and mindsets.
  • [15:52] Deadlifts and L. Ron Hubbard. The benefits and learnings from screaming at walls as a childhood Scientologist.
  • [22:43] Paddling to America from Venezuela in a canoe. Competitiveness and background in sports like soccer, distance running, CrossFit and weightlifting – and a future in archery.
  • [26:00] “Are you more competitive with yourself or with other people?” How to find internal motivation from perceived slights.
  • [29:30] Strange messages from fans on Instagram – including stomping on small pets and study lessons from L. Ron Hubbard
  • [32:15] Physical therapy clinical rotations: How to provide effective treatment while overwhelmed with patients.
  • [34:25] Integrating principles from training and coaching into a rehab setting. Balancing the expectations and policies of a clinic with individualization of treatment and the desire to utilize unconventional methods. Utilizing different movement patterns and planes of motion to rehab individuals who have overdeveloped certain skills.
  • [44:20] How did Hybrid Performance Method start? Plus, the real economics of running a brick and mortar gym.
  • [53:24] How does Hybrid Performance Method online coaching work? What different programs and options are there?
  • [55:34] In-season and off-season training protocols for powerlifters and other strength sport athletes. The benefits of training outside of sport specific application and how to structure this in a yearly template. Prioritizing meets and doing some meets as “training” rather than “competition.”

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Dylan Walker from Full of Hell

I first met Dylan at a show that I was booking probably back in 2011.

Just checked my e-mail, and yes – it was 2011. And Dylan was weirdly e-mailing me from Spencer’s e-mail address. Have some boundaries, guys.

As a supporter of the DIY punk, hardcore, and metal scenes, I facilitated a subcultural event that involved doing a workout, playing extreme music, and feeding an apparently malnourished group of youths in Full of Hell some sort of enjoyable scramble of treats.

Since then, Full of Hell has gone on to become a force of nature. They blend grindcore, powerviolence, power electronics, and death metal in a totally cohesive (aka not post-modern jumbled mess) layered mess of aggression.

Full of Hell is an insane live band. Please observe:

And, if you favor such sounds, please also listen to their most recent album Trumpeting Ecstasy. I think it’s really wonderful.

Listen Here

Check out Dylan and Full of Hell here:

Resources Mentioned

Show Notes

  • [2:30] Mrs. Doubtfire
  • [5:45] Traumatizing family pranks and recurring nightmares
  • [10:00] Folklore and archetypal stories – and their relationship to evolved instincts
  • [18:57] How Dylan got into extreme music – including punk parents and friends at school
  • [23:12] First meeting Spencer and Full of Hell
  • [30:19] In-group signaling behavior amongst extreme music subgenre fanatics
  • [34:00] Full of Hell’s collaboration record with Merzbow
  • [38:02] Gateway bands and introducing fans to your own taste
  • [46:10] Regroup to discuss meeting Spencer and creating the current Full of Hell line-up
  • [50:22] Full of Hell’s first tour – including show in Chicago with Like Rats and a CrossFit workout
  • [53:25] Full of Hell’s creative vision: The harshness of the world and the coldness of human beings –
    and the weight of all suffering
  • [1:02:32] Writing lyrics, writing vocal patterns, and making them a cohesive and integral part of the music
  • [1:10:00] Stories from touring with Immolation and the Cavaleras
  • [1:21:30] The creative process for the upcoming collaboration record with The Body

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Rehab Principles in Performance-Based Athletes

As a continuing education junky, I’ve spent a pretty significant amount of time and money on courses related to fitness and business over the last several years.

I’ve been tending to gravitate towards many of the courses in the physical therapy and rehab realm. Why is this?

Well, I think some of it is that there is a huge market for these courses, since licensed professionals have to maintain continuing education credits, and a whole industry has sprung up surrounding meeting those requirements. And, some of the folks teaching are really, really good.

I also think that it has to do with the fact that I really like being slightly uncomfortable in terms of what I’m learning – and being in situations where most of the people in a room have a lot more specific education and background than me makes me feel like I have to step my game up to keep up.

As someone who was often bored and frustrated during school, this is pretty much the opposite experience of most of my classroom learning.

I’ve taken a lot of principles from these rehab-based courses and applied them to training athletes looking for performance – but I think there’s a lot of confusion surrounding the best and most reasonable ways to cross-pollinate these kinds of ideas.

So, I recorded a little bit of solo floetry with my thoughts on applying rehab principles to training performance-based athletes.

Listen Here

Resources Mentioned

Show Notes

  • [1:56] The value of continuing education in field that are not directly your specialty – and the value of being slightly behind the curve and slightly confused in courses
  • [3:23] CrossFit coaches, personal trainers, and movement-based professionals should not be telling people that they’re going to fix their pain. Movement is often helpful, but painful issues should be referred out.
  • [4:30] Training is the process of applying stress to the system and allowing adaptation to occur.
    Movement patterning affects the dosage of stress an individual experiences.
  • [5:40] The research on injury prevention through altering movement patterns is murky at best. Coaches should not be making unfounded claims about injury prevention.
  • [8:10] By altering movement patterns, the goal for an athlete is to be able to express their maximum potential.
  • [9:20] Are movement patterns actually the limiting factor for an athlete? Many top performers do extremely well despite sever compensation patterns.
  • [11:00] Does removing a compensation pattern actually help an athlete or can it hinder their performance in the short term?

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How I Consume an Unreasonable Amount of Information and Actually Remember It (A Tactical Guide)

This post is the tactical companion to a forthcoming post on how and why I consume so much information. There are several higher order principles that I think are very important for making lifelong learning a consistent part of my life. There are also lots of misconceptions that I see about how to learn, how to choose what to read and listen to, and how to retain it. And, there are a lot of people thinking they’re learning by multi-tasking, but they’re really just doing a bad job at everything they’re doing. But, this is not the place for these kinds of discussions. This is the place for the nitty gritty details.

Even though I know people will just randomly copy some of the ideas in here and apply them without thinking about how they will work for their own specific schedule, habits, and preferred methods of learning – please don’t do that. Use this as a tangible example to build your own systems and methods for your own learning.

There’s three things that I’m trying to accomplish when thinking about how to filter information:
1. Keep track of all of the interesting stuff that I want to someday read, watch, or listen to.
2. Prioritize the things that will help me the most at a given time – or will provide me with the type of entertainment or challenge that I’m looking for (without getting lost in the overwhelming totality of everything I’ve catalogued).
3. Read, watch, or listen to the content that I’ve chosen in a way that maximizes efficiency and minimizes distraction without compromising comprehension, retention, or entertainment.

My systems are also quite complicated and they involve a lot more pieces of software than may seem appropriate or necessary.

This set of behaviors was not built top down as a crazy network of apps and protocols. Rather, it is emergent from constantly trying to reduce friction and increase efficiency, and it is built on habits that I have already developed and refined.

I also like being able to “separate” certain types of content and tasks. There’s an interesting balance to be found between having one inbox for everything, and fighting for separation between different areas of focus and priority. You don’t want to have random assortment of scraps of paper, e-mails, to-do lists, and stacks of mail all over the place, nor do you want to have to filter through everything on your list every time you need to find something.

So, with that disclaimer, here’s how I consume an unreasonable amount of information content and actually remember it.


One of the best investments that I’ve made is an iPad mini and Bluetooth headphones. This allows me to listen to my weird sped up content without triggering everyone around me.

I also love using the iPad instead of my phone for reading and listening since it’s much harder for me to get distracted on the iPad. I have my work e-mail and text messages disabled on the iPad and notifications are turned off for everything. I also don’t have social media apps or – if I do – they stay logged off unless I’m using them for a specific purpose.

I think a lot of people imagine that they’re using their smartphone to read the news, check articles, and watch interesting videos – but they’re really just flipping back and forth between whatever they think they’re doing and their social media, e-mail, and text messages.


Here’s how this works.

I use Overcast at ~1.85x speed with “Smart Speed” enabled

I strongly prefer Overcast to other podcast players since it allows a sliding scale speed option as well as a little button called “smart speed” that shortens silences.

To a lot of normal people, listening at 1.85x speed is an insane thing to do and it sounds horrible and awful. For me, however, I can follow most speakers at this speed without losing comprehension.

At this point, listening to podcasts at normal speed makes me antsy and impatient – and it reminds me of being really bored and upset in high school, which probably says something about my personality, my character, and my fundamental disposition.

I listen to podcasts while commuting, doing chores or doing easy exercise – but never attempt to “multi-task” while doing anything cognitively demanding.

I think the fact that multi-tasking is really switch-tasking is well-known by now, but people don’t behave as if it is. This article seems to convey the gist of it pretty well. Quit trying to multi-task. It just makes you bad at everything.

I only subscribe to a subset of podcasts that are consistently interesting, entertaining, or educational.

I keep up with these as they arrive. I check everything else on a monthly basis (the first week of the month for me).
Overcast allows you to have podcasts “saved” in your list that you are not actually subscribed to, so I simply scroll through, look at their feeds, and download any episodes that I want to hear. It usually takes me about two weeks to listen to all of the “non-subscribed” podcasts that I download on a monthly basis.

Most of what I listen to is centered on – surprisingly – fitness and business.

I categorize the podcasts I listen to into two categories:

Those that I subscribe to and those that I check on a monthly basis.

By only subscribing to a smaller subset of podcasts, I can avoid recency bias and letting my podcasts app get cluttered (although that still often happens). I can prioritize the new stuff from content creators who I hold in extra high regard, and sort through everything else on my own timeline.

I have a pretty high bar for podcasts that I subscribe to. I only subscribe to things that I feel like I will learn from every episode.

An example here would be something like “Mastering Nutrition” with Chris Masterjohn, since I feel like almost every episode is over my head (in a good way) and I’m always struggling to keep up with the biochemistry.

Or, something like “EconTalk” with Russ Roberts since he consistently has interesting guests and regularly challenges my intuitions with his libertarian leanings. And, he spends a lot of time talking about complex emergent phenomena, creating incentives for specific types of behavior, and understanding the unintended consequences of incentive structures.

Or, “This American Life” since my logical, systematic brain needs all the help it can get with narrative structure and connecting emotionally to an audience. These folks are some of the best of all time in that capacity (and the stories are really, really nice and I regularly learn new things, laugh, or become emotional).

The podcasts that I check monthly often have interesting content, but are either released so frequently that I am not interested in trying to keep up, they have a host who is kind of annoying, or they’re produced in a way that uses so many fast edits and narrative tricks that I become upset and triggered while listening to them.

An obvious example here would be something like Joe Rogan’s podcast. Joe is insanely prolific and his podcasts can either be very interesting or totally lame unstructured ramblings. Sometimes he interviews people who I really want to hear from like Robert Sapolsky. Or Pauly Shore. Other times, he has people on who have a lot of opinions about MMA or want to ramble about conspiracy theories. I don’t care about that stuff.

My Audible subscription delivers my credit on the third week of the month.

I wish Audible had a sliding scale for speed, but most audiobooks are narrated so slowly that 2x speed is about right for most narrators. I select my audiobook based upon current challenges that I’m working through (learning how to manage people at South Loop Strength & Conditioning has had me listening to a lot of books focusing on that problem: “Work Rules!” by Laszlo Bock has been particularly helpful) or based upon strong recommendations from people I trust (“The Righteous Mind” by Jonathan Haidt was a real mind-blower on the roots of conservative vs liberal moral thinking, for example).

Scroll down a bit to the section on “Bookmarks” to see how I save and categorize things that I want to read.

I bookmark and categorize interesting video lectures in Pinboard when I come across them.

Once per month (the fourth week of the month for me), I rip about 10 of those videos to audio using 4k Video Downloader, and I upload them to Overcast using the paid “Uploads” feature.

I also use the app Overdrive to rent audiobooks from the public library.

Chicago Public Library has some pretty good stuff available, although that’s more of a “browse and see what’s available” type of situation rather than looking for a specific book since the selection is somewhat limited.


Here’s how this works:

I prefer tagging for bookmarks rather than folders so that I can make connections between different content, so I use Pinboard.

Given that I’ve been focusing on learning about “management,” I want to be able to click my “management” tag and see books, videos, and articles that I’ve saved to read on this topic – rather than navigating a folder tree that inevitably becomes disorganized and messy.

I will use Google Chrome on my mobile devices as a repository for “things to look up.”

Since I listen to so much audio content, I will pull up a browser tab with something that I want to investigate further or the Amazon page for a book I want to read. Since Google Chrome allows you to sync open tabs across devices, I will pull open all of the browser tabs on my laptop (theoretically) once per week and either bookmark or read the things I’ve collected.

Once you have more than 99 tabs open in Chrome, the tab counter turns into a smiley face to let you know that you’re an idiot loser and everyone is laughing at you.

I use the app SimplePin to save and categorize bookmarks on mobile.

This has an integration that allows you to send things from other apps to Pinboard on mobile. So yes, I’m the freak who will send things from Instapaper to Pinboard, and I recognize this is ridiculous.

I save most articles to Instapaper rather than reading them in the browser.

I don’t like the distractions, advertisements, and clickbait on most websites, and I also like to separate “reading” time from “content sorting” time.

Instapaper conveniently has bookmarklets that allow you to save things while using a mobile browser as well.


Here’s how this works:

If a video is of a lecture that doesn’t require slides, I prefer to rip the audio and listen in Overcast.

See above in the podcasts section. I don’t sit still well.

If a video is on YouTube, I will often use the built-in YouTube speed controls to speed it up.

If the video is longer or not hosted on YouTube, I have an app called MySpeed that allows me to increase the speed of most embedded videos (although this no longer works in Google Chrome).

I have a Chrome browser extension called Options from Smart People on Ice that allows you to disable and hide a lot of the clutter on the YouTube page (like related videos, comments, etc.).

While this related content can occasionally be helpful, it usually just results in distraction.

I am always aware that the incentives of services that are supported by ads are not necessarily in alignment with my goals – they want to keep me on their site so they can learn about my customer behavior and display appropriately targeted advertisements to me.

I don’t have a problem being advertised to, but I do want to prioritize my own learning over being distracted by psychological hacks.

I will add videos that I want to watch as entertainment (rather than learning) to a YouTube playlist and watch them on Apple TV during the rare times that I “watch a show” so to speak.

An example would be the pre-Monty Python “At Last the 1948 Show” which was both satisfyingly silly, and a really interesting fossil record in the development of transcendent comedic talent.

I rarely watch video on my iPad, but, if I do, I will often use an app called Speedeo to increase playback speed since the video speed controls that work in a desktop browser don’t work in mobile.

I will sometimes watch lectures while doing easy aerobic work on an Assault Bike.

I save movies that I want to watch to my Netflix DVD queue or to Pinboard.

I wish I had more bandwidth for and interest in films, but my behavior indicates that this is simply not much of a priority for me.


Here’s how this works:

I prefer to save articles to Instapaper rather than reading them as they come up.

I (theoretically) keep my Instapaper pretty clean, so I don’t do much sorting of the articles I have saved. If I did, I would prefer tagging over folders and would potentially seek out a different service. I prefer keeping my bookmarks (Pinboard) separate from my “articles to-read” (Instapaper).

I save PDFs to a folder called “To Read” in my Dropbox.

These are typically scientific papers and “lead magnets” from various websites. PDFs are tricky, since most ways of reading them are clunky and don’t allow you to save your spot. The Adobe Acrobat app works quite well for this. I will import the PDF that I want to read into the Acrobat app from my Dropbox folder and save it locally on my iPad.

I use Netvibes for my RSS feed.

RSS seems to be disappearing, but I have always loved it. I’m still saddened by the demise of Google Reader.

I have a separate inbox for e-mail newsletters and blogs that I like, since mixing that in with work and personal e-mail creates clutter.

I prefer to read these newsletters on my iPad like I would any other articles.

I use Google Inbox, and I have some newsletters automatically go into a “Low Priority” folder that I check once per week, while I allow the ones from people who I want to read regularly (Ramit Sethi, Seth Godin, Bryan Harris, etc.) to show up “unfoldered” so to speak.


Here’s how this works:

I have hundreds and hundreds of books bookmarked in Pinboard.

They are all categorized under the “books” tag and include other tags like “management,” “biography,” “economics,” etc. that allow me to filter them by topic when choosing my next book to read.

Just as with audiobooks, I choose my next read based upon whatever problems I am currently prioritizing as well as salient recommendations from people who I trust.

I think of books as being either “mentally challenging” or “easy reads.”

I will usually be reading two or three books at once – ideally at least one that is “mentally challenging” and one that is an “easy read.” I will read the “mentally challenging” books in the morning, and the “easy reads” in the evening.

“Mentally challenging” books are books that require a significant amount of mental energy or focus to take something out of them. Something like my DNS textbook “Clinical Rehabilitation” by Pavel Kolar would certainly be considered something like “mentally challenging.”

Some very tactical business books like “SPIN Selling” would also be in the “mentally challenging” category for me. Even though the book is not written in a way that makes it difficult to read, thinking through the tactical implications of various sales processes is probably not great preparation for sleep.

“Easy reads” are typically something more conversational like biographies or something more story-based like various pop psychology books.

Even something somewhat challenging like Robert Sapolsky’s “Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers” can still be an “easy reading” book for me since it is written in a very easy to follow conversational tone – even though the content can sometimes be very dense and heavy with biological concepts.

I do occasionally purchase Kindle books, but usually only when there is no paper or audio version available. I will read these in the Kindle app.

I have no specific reason for this other than preferring to get away from reading on a screen when possible.


Here’s how this works:

I love the YouTube music app.

I can almost always find what I’m looking for on there, unlike with other streaming services. This isn’t meant to be an elitist, cool guy statement, but I like a lot of weird stuff that is probably never going to be part of the licensing agreements that get things on major streaming services.

I have a “To Listen” playlist to which I will save anything that I want to check out. I will usually listen to new music while doing “chores” on my computer like e-mails and minor administrative tasks.

While the days of downloading gigs and gigs and gigs of mp3s are mostly gone, I still do have a “To Listen” folder in my Dropbox.

I could write an article similar in length to this one about my former music downloading and organizing habits, but most of that is no longer relevant. Anything that I can’t find on YouTube that I want to check out gets downloaded here, and I listen to it during my “new music” times.

I am certainly not a Record Collector with a capital R, but I do like owning physical copies of music that I really enjoy.

Albums that I like enough to want to own get saved to my wantlist on Discogs. When browsing in a record store, I will often pull up that list to get an idea of which crates to dig in.


I was never a huge note-taker growing up, and I would scoff at the nerds with their perfectly highlighted notebooks and their precious color-coded tabs sticking out their textbooks. I was like, “are you actually going to look at that stuff?”

And for them, the answer may have been, “Yes. Yes I am.” But for me, the answer would have been, “Definitely not.”

At this point, though, I see the value in note-taking not so much for learning and recall, but for connecting ideas.

I’m not sure what exactly changed my mind, but I was definitely at least partially swayed by Ryan Holiday’s article on his notecard system and the concept of a Zettelkasten.

Here’s how this works:

I have several notebooks in Evernote for different types of content from which I may be taking notes: Article Notes, Book Notes, Lecture Notes, Podcast Notes, etc.

I will type, write (with a stylus), or dictate a brief summary of the key idea in a given note and title it with something that hopefully makes sense and gets across the key point.

I will tag the note with tags for the author/speaker/etc., the name of the book or podcast, and big picture key concepts like “management,” “marketing,” “stress,” “Google,” “effectiveness,” etc.

I don’t study my notes by any means, but I will click through tags when attempting to solve a specific type of problem (say “lead capture”) or when writing an article or newsletter and looking for interesting anecdotes or examples – or simply hoping to come across seemingly disparate concepts that I can unite and draw insight from.

I used to save full articles to my notes, but I found that I almost never look at these. The cognitive effort required to go back through and parse out what I found interesting originally simply doesn’t happen most of the time.

I will, however, save full examples of pages for things like sales page layouts, opt-in forms, article formatting, etc.

So, that’s what I do.

Woe to any who attempt to copy my bizarre and eccentric information behaviors…

But please let me know if you have any similar systems or have any recommendations on apps, tips or tricks that make collecting, sorting, learning and synthesizing better, more efficient, and – last but not least – more FUN.

See you at all the parties!

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Jason Phillips on Macros and Mentorship

Jason Phillips

How does it feel to be back? How does it feel to be back? How does it feel to be back in my arms again?

The answer is that it feels to be good podcasting again.

First episode back is with my pal Jason Phillips. I’ve known Jason for awhile now. We’ve shared many clients, with me writing some exercising programs and Jason putting together some nutrition prescriptions.

Jason has been getting people lean, ripped and shredded for awhile now, but – more importantly – he’s been teaching CrossFit athletes how to eat appropriately to handle the volume and intensity that a lot of these freaks are putting in. (Hint: There can be long term hormonal consequences to training like a maniac while eating a low carb Paleo diet.)

Not only does Jason know a thing or two about how to prescribe some carbs, fats, and proteins, he’s also built a nutrition coaching business with multiple coaches. We dig into how Jason initially built his clientele, then how he started to replace his own work with clients in the business when he began to hit the point of overwhelm.

Listen Here

Learn More About Jason

Resources Mentioned

Show Notes

  • [5:04] Jason’s Background with eating disorders and HPA (Hypothalamic Pituitary Adernal) Axis dysfunction – as well as the trends of Paleo, Zone and macro counting in CrossFit
  • [8:08] Jason’s experience with overtraining while attempting to compete in CrossFit – including a torn biceps tendon and a torn labrum
  • [13:01] Understanding how hard to push – ignoring signals from the body can be valuable or destructive
  • [18:20] Understanding metabolic adaptation (sometimes colloquially referred to as “metabolic damage”)
    in clients and the role of leptin resistance in appetite dysregulation
  • [23:00] A UFC fighter’s weight cut from 156 to 135, and the role of dehydration in brain injuries in combat sports
  • [25:10] Tactics vs strategy in highly-motivated, self-researching clients and how to handle the influence of Instagram on clients. “Education drives compliance.”
  • [32:53] To create compliance in clients, it’s key to start them at an appropriate level of complexity rather than allowing them to go all in right away.
  • [38:21] Don’t worry about scaling your coaching business until you’ve demonstrated that you can help a lot of people on your own.
  • [41:27] How to go from a handful of clients to 160+
  • [44:10] There was no specific business tipping point. Just doing podcasts, trying to help people,
    and doing the right things repeatedly over time.
  • [45:48] How do you replace yourself in a technical service business? By mentoring people, finding the right ones, and teaching them the information they need to be successful.
  • [48:59] Business coaching with Bedros has given perspective on setting exact goals, dealing with self-limiting beliefs about abilities to achieve those goals, then coming up with concrete numbers that must be hit to move towards those goals on a consistent basis.
  • [52:34] How to balance hustling and grinding with focusing on being effective and efficient. Developing a routine that allows focused work time on major priorities.

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Stephan Guyenet, PhD – Author of The Hungry Brain

Stephan Guyenet

There’s been a culture war raging for decades – high carbohydrate diets vs high fat diets, paleo diets vs vegan diets, people tracking all of their food in apps while others shout that “calories don’t matter,” and a bunch of people off in the corner sipping exogenous ketones.

If you’re familiar with Jonathan Haidt’s book The Righteous Mind or the moral foundations theory, it’s no surprise that our morality is easily intertwined with our basic biological urges for food. It’s also no surprise that strong emotions like disgust can mingle with our food choices, causing extreme reactions – people aren’t just failing to achieve optimal results by consuming the “wrong” macronutrients in their diet, they’re degrading their bodies through their impure and improper behavior.

But, how do our bodies actually regulate our weight? How do we regulate our levels of body fatness?

Everyone knows that one guy who is freakishly lean – seemingly no matter what he does for diet or exercise.

Everyone also probably has a cousin who lost a ton of weight on a low carb diet. And then there’s the friend who had great success with paleo. And the other who went vegan and swears it changed his life.

What about hunter gatherer cultures? Kitavans (eating a diet of approximately 70% carbohydrates – predominantly from sweet potatoes) to the Inuit (eating a diet of approximately 50% fat) all seemingly regulate their bodyweight at healthy levels and are free from chronic diseases that plague industrialized cultures.

Is there a thread that ties all of these things together? How can so many seemingly disparate approaches to eating all produce results in both individuals and populations?

There is a “middle way,” so to speak, and Stephan Guyenet has been promoting a framework that makes thinking about bodyweight, body fatness, and appetite all a lot more reasonable.

Stephan has a PhD in neurobiology, and has published research on the role of the brain in regulating body fatness – particularly the role of hypothalamic injury and inflammation.

Stephan has blogged actively for years – first at Whole Health Source, and now at his eponymous site He’s also been a presenter at conferences such as the Ancestral Health Symposium.

Fortunately for the unwashed, unclean masses who have been defiling themselves and their palate through improper eating behavior, Stephan has just released a book called The Hungry Brain that distills the complicated science of bodyweight and body fat regulation into a cohesive narrative.

Stream the episode below, or listen on your favorite podcast app to learn:

  • The “thermostat analogy” for how the body regulates hunger and activity
  • The hormone that stays out of the limelight, but has a much stronger global effect than insulin on fat storage (hint: it’s leptin)
  • The few months of the year that account for the most weight gain

Listen Here

Learn More About Stephan

Resources Mentioned

Show Notes

  • [0:25] Introduction of Stephan Guyenet and summary of The Hungry Brain
  • [6:50] Energy balance and the brain’s role in regulating energy intake and expenditure
  • [17:48] Body fat setpoint: is it a true setpoint or is it a “settling point”?
  • [22:42] Hypothalamic injury and potential dysregulation of the body fat set point.
  • [33:51] The unreliability of self-reported calorie intake – Does “reverse dieting” align with the science?
  • [41:38] Cheat meals and weight gain around the holidays.
  • [48:11] How do you sort through dense information in while conducting research and literature review
  • [53:37] What would be the next step in studying the processes and phenomena that you cover in your book?

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Peter Rahal, Founder and CEO of RXBAR

Peter Rahal

I remember Peter Rahal approaching me by the whiteboard at River North CrossFit. If you’ve ever met Peter, he’s kind of a quiet but intense guy. He has a sense of humor, but is also a weird guy with weird ideas, so sometimes you’re not sure if he’s joking or serious.

He comes up to me and says, “Hey, I’m thinking of starting a protein bar company. What do you think?”

I don’t remember what I said, but I know it was something to the effect of, “I don’t know anything about protein bars or the food business, but hopefully you do.”

A few years later, an annoying middle-aged woman in Trader Joe’s who doesn’t know anything about CrossFit or about how to properly check out at the grocery store (Help bag your groceries! Chat pleasantly with the cashier but be ready for when the card swiper is ready to accept your form of payment! Move it along, people!) was talking loudly about how much she “loves these new protein bars” while purchasing a handful of RXBARs.

Looks like Peter was on to something after all. RXBARs quickly spread throughout the CrossFit space and have now made the jump into the mainstream of alternative grocery stores like Trader Joe’s.

But, success on this scale doesn’t just come from having a great idea or a great product – it comes from execution. Scaling any business involves massive challenges in tactical logistics, as well as higher order thinking regarding how to maintain quality, create a culture, and hold employees accountable.

Check out this interview with Peter to learn:

  • When to quit your job and focus on your business idea
  • What benchmarks you see in a fast growing company
  • The best interview questions for hiring employees
  • RXBAR’s unexpected and comical branding problem
  • When to listen to marketing experts and when to trust your gut

Listen Here

Learn More About Peter and RXBAR

Show Notes

  • [00:22] Intro
  • [01:54] What made you think you could start a protein bar company?
  • [08:14] What have been the tipping points in the first few years of business?
  • [12:16] Why does disregarding the standard branding advice pay off?
  • [15:31] What happens between making bars in the basement and the re-branding of RXBAR?
  • [17:13] At what point did you fully “jump off the cliff” and solely focus on RXBAR?
  • [23:10] At what point did you hire people?
  • [31:35] Work/life balance….
  • [33:32] What does day-to-day look like for you?
  • [38:24] What would you choose to do if you had total control over your time?
  • [42:48] New flavors…. Yum, how does that come to pass?
  • [49:29] What was your biggest mistake?

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Dr. Shawn Allen of The Gait Guys

Shawn Allen

Anyone who has ever been to a physical therapist has inevitably been told that they have “weak glutes” and been given Jane Fondas or some other form of band exercise.

Does every human being actually have weak glutes? Is the contractile potential of the muscle limited? Do glutes really not “fire correctly”? Can we actually come up with biomechanical explanations for all of the injuries and issues that we find in athletes?

Dr. Shawn Allen is one half of The Gait Guys along with Dr. Ivo Waerlop – a duo renowned for their information dense podcasts and blog posts in which they dissect the latest research articles in rehab, injuries, nervous system development, and strength training.

Dr. Allen practices not too far from my parents’ house in the suburbs of Chicago, so I made the trek out to see him for some chronic groin issues I’d had from playing soccer. And, it turns out I had some glute issues myself.

However, it’s not as simple as simply contracting the offending muscle group over and over and over again. The pattern in which dysfunction is present must be identified, and then a new pattern must be learned to replace the dysfunctional pattern – which is a higher order way of approaching injuries and movement issues.

Dr. Allen and I have had several interesting conversations about injury mechanisms, the nervous system’s control of movement, and best practices in rehab and training, so we decided to record one of them here.

Listen Here

Learn More About Dr. Shawn Allen and The Gait Guys

Show Notes

  • [00:23] Introduction of Dr. Shawn Allen
  • [11:19] How do you balance the biomechanics with someone with multiple movement issues.
  • [21:11] How do you figure out when you should be trying to fix things or just let them go?
  • [29:05] Do you have an example of a thought process or example that you would go through to re-train a pattern on someone?
  • [44:23] How do you reconcile where pain actually comes from and how much biomechanics actually causes pain?
  • [56:26] Muscle testing…

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Brandon Heavey & Nicole Latimer of Evidence Based Athlete

Brandon Heavey & Nicole Latimer

If you have any interest in the fitness industry – for health, performance, weight loss, or otherwise – you’ve seen some sensational headlines.

“I tried the ketogenic diet and lost 15 pounds in three weeks – all while adding 30 pounds to my one rep max deadlift!”

“My squats had stalled out for years, until I tried this Russian squat program that the Soviets used for their most elite level weightlifters. I was sore for a month, but ended up adding 45 pounds to my one rep max!”

“Personal trainers hate him…”

“I’ve got the number one miracle in a bottle to burn your fat…and it’s raspberry ketones.” Congress even got involved in this one, when they held hearings investigating Dr. Oz’s somewhat unscrupulous claims.

So, what’s a person who wants to burn belly fat or add fifty pounds to their squat to do?

Well, turn to the evidence of course.

Problem is – as anyone who has tried to read the scientific literature – evidence is messy. Evidence is convoluted. Evidence has all kinds of issues like p value hacking (using advanced data mining techniques to find statistically significant correlations in large amounts of data) and the repeatability crisis (a shocking number of studies don’t show the same results when other experimenters attempt to replicate them) – not to mention the challenges of setting up truly randomized, controlled studies when attempting to investigate complicated, mulit-variate, emergent systems that actually affect our health and wellness.

Fortunately, folks like Brandon Heavey and Nicole Latimer are willing and able to spend their time digging through the scientific literature while simultaneously coaching people in the real world, which gives them unique insight into both best practices as supported by evidence, as well as a filter for what actually works with real people in the real world.

I first met Brandon at an OPEX course in Scottsdale – taking Level 2 program design like a bunch of nerds who want to spend all of their time and money learning weird stuff.

A few weeks back, I was at the Ancestral Health Symposium in Boulder, and much to my delight, Brandon and Nicole ended up sitting behind me at one of the first lectures.

They used to own CrossFit 626 in Pasadena, and sold that to move into the mountains outside of Boulder and focus on their individualized coaching in both nutrition and program design. Brandon has an engineering background and Nicole is a pharmacist, so these are folks highly versed in systems thinking and understanding complicated webs of cause and effect.

Take a listen to learn how to filter all the conflicting and confusing information from articles, blogs, and research studies, how to organize that information, and how to figure out what really works in the confusing edges between fitness, nutrition, hormone testing, and human psychology.

Listen Here

Learn More About Evidence Based Athlete and Strength & Scotch

Show Notes

  • [0:23] Introduction
  • [1:23] What did you take away from the Ancestral Health Symposium?
  • [5:52] A brief summary of Dr. Gerstmar talks.
  • [9:29] Science of detoxification
  • [15:13] What is Evidence Based athlete?
  • [20:49] How do you get buy-in from people on changes you’re asking them to make?
  • [24:06] A run down of backgrounds…
  • [35:24] Interesting aspects of Evidence Based Athlete
  • [38:37] What steps do you take to avoid bias or common errors in why things are working?
  • [41:26] What do you guys do to educate yourselves and stay up to date?
  • [53:36] Continuing education resources.
  • [59:08] How do you decide that you trust a source?
  • [1:03:00] What does someone do if they want to get started with Evidence Based Athlete?
  • [1:06:00] What is the actual reliability of tests?

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Group Classes vs Training Templates vs Individualized Programming

Jon Colborn & Todd Nief

Everyone has an opinion on programming and training for CrossFit.

Quibbles over the best ways to train are nothing new in any sport.

Let’s see how many different ways that people can argue over intensity vs volume in training protocols with a few Google searches.

“intensity vs volume CrossFit”

“intensity vs volume bodybuilding”

“intensity vs volume sprinting”

“intensity vs volume triathlon”

With all of these competing opinions out there, what’s a helpless, confused trainee to do?

At this point, most people training competitively for the sport of CrossFit have a coach – often one who either individualizes training for that athlete or who gives them templated training that multiple competitors of comparable skill levels (or many wannabe competitors) follow.

Most people training in CrossFit affiliates participate in group classes with programming designed for an avatar of a specific person – then either modified or scaled to enable each participant to get their training in.

Each of these training methods has trade-offs, and many coaches out there have strong opinions about which method is best. Problem is, most of these people have some sort of business incentive for pushing their favorite version of training – and a healthy dose of confirmation bias backing up their opinions.

On this episode of the SLSC podcast, Paul, Jon and Todd discuss the positives and negatives of different types of training, and also dive into how to truly individualize a training program for an athlete.

And, as it turns out, there is a bit of a business interest and confirmation bias present here as well, as Jon and Todd have an individualized training business called Legion that you can scope out if you’re interested in having a coach filter through all of the competing information out there and guide your training.

Listen Here

Learn More About Legion Strength & Conditioning

Show Notes

  • [0:25] Intro
  • [1:25] Class programming vs. Individualized programming
  • [6:41] How do we write the class programming? What does that avatar look like?
  • [8:40] What are some of the major differences between class/individual programming?
  • [11:29] Catering to what athletes like and what they don’t like.
  • [16:46] Holding hands or flying free… How do coaches approach direction and encouragement.
  • [20:11] Sometime you have to walk away from you training day.
  • [22:03] Distinction between training in CrossFit and being a CrossFIt athlete.
  • [26:27] How to individualize programs and what that actually looks like.
  • [38:17] What makes a good individual coach/program?
  • [47:02] Can a coach be a good athlete?
  • [49:47] What does it actually mean to individualize?

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